Course Descriptions

For a full listing of the RTA School of Media courses, including course calendar and course descriptions, please visit the Ryerson Course Calendar.

RTA 101 Introduction to Media Theory and Practice
This course provides an introduction to major media and new media theories, art movements and creative practices of the 20th and 21st centuries. Students learn to think critically about artworks, creative experiments and media. The course culminates in a major assignment where each student delves deeply into a specific theory to examine artworks, current creative practice or the audience’s relationship to media.

RTA 102 Creative Processes
This introductory course focuses on principles, theories and practices of content development for a variety of media genres, formats and distribution platforms. Students explore the development of creative and fact-based content by using processes such as rapid prototyping, iterative design, story-chasing and script writing. Students emerge from the course with an understanding of how to take their creative ideas from inception to the creation of compelling content. (Formerly BDC 102).

RTA 103 Digital Media Production I
Through a combination of lecture and hands-on workshops, students will broaden their understanding of digital media, develop a critical understanding of the role of digital media in contemporary life, and become conscious consumers and creators of technology and digital media content. Students will be introduced to principles of visual design and communication, and will learn how to use digital media production software for graphic design, web-native production and time-based media. (Formerly BDC 192).

RTA 104 Sound Production
Through a combination of lecture and in-studio workshops, students learn foundational skills in digital sound production: recording, editing, and mixing. Students then apply these skills through the creation of soundscapes across a variety of media, including radio, screen, etc., and develop a strong appreciation for the relationship of sound to image and the role of sound in media. (Formerly BDC 191).

RTA 105 Sport Theory and Practice
This course will examine the impact of sport in culture. By way of lectures, students will examine issues utilizing social theories to explain the role of sport in society. How has sport infiltrated everyday life and what is the impact of the commercialization of sport by media? Analysis of the socio-negative attributes associated with professional athletes will also be examined.

RTA 201 Video Art and Production
This studio/lab course approaches video as a unique artistic and standard production medium. Students learn about video art and production through making creative video works. Field trips, screenings, readings and critiques augment hands-on learning. Students will familiarize themselves with the concepts, tools and techniques of basic video making. Project development, production and public presentation strategies are aimed at creating a strong foundation in making moving media for broadcast, narrowcast, and virtual spaces. (Formerly MPM 106).

RTA 210 Media History
This course traces the history of media from the first radio broadcast to today’s transmedia storyworlds. Students consider the main forces which shaped our media industry: technological change, commercial imperatives, creative aspirations, demographic trends and government policy and regulation. By looking at the past, students gain a greater appreciation of the current media landscape and, perhaps, the ability to adapt quickly to the future. (Formerly BDC 210).

RTA 211 Production Theory
This lecture course will introduce analog and digital audio systems, an overview of visual media technical concepts, and computer hardware and networks with an emphasis on understanding the use of technology in audio and digital media production. The course will be taught at a non-engineering level. Lectures will include samples of technology, demonstrations and application of technical knowledge in production. (Formerly BDC 211).

RTA 212 Media Writing
Building on RTA 102 (Creative Processes), this courses focuses on writing for the screen and related platforms with an emphasis on fictional storytelling. Students consider major theories and schools of writing which will inform students? work and how they tell stories. Students then build on those theories to write their own script. (Formerly BDC 202)

RTA 213 Production: Introduction to Multi-camera
Students will gain a practical working knowledge of operational techniques, including hands-on equipment training in a multi-camera television studio with cameras, sound and lighting. Emphasis will also be placed on crew roles and responsibilities. Theory lectures will analyze the process of communicating information and emotion through visuals and sound. Production planning techniques and control room protocol will be taught to help students organize and execute their creative ideas.

RTA 220 New Media Art History
This course locates contemporary art practices within the historical frameworks of analogue and digital cultures. Students consider the digital movements that underpin current new media art culture. The course also explores the influence of digital cultures on 21st century art practices as well as hybrid forms of aesthetics. The historical, theoretical, and practical aspects of the transformation of author and viewer in new media are also investigated.

RTA 221 Experiential Media/Interdisciplinary Practice
The city in all its complexity becomes a classroom, as students are invited to critically examine the physical and virtual forces that shape today's reality. The particular focus of the course is on the function of media in the context of experience design. Using an interdisciplinary approach, students explore topics such as intersecting technologies, social relations, cultural conditions, high and low art forms, robotics, transmedia and remediation as they relate to public spaces. (Formerly MPM 107).

RTA 222 Intro to Computational Arts
This studio class introduces students to fundamental concepts, techniques and strategies of computer programming as an art form by teaching how to code interactive programs. The course investigates the interplay between creative expression and technological capability. Emphasis will be placed on computational literacy as well as constructing and evaluating algorithmic creative forms and artefacts. (Formerly second half of MPM16A/B and MPM 206).

RTA 231 Sport Marketing and Promotion
This course builds upon marketing fundamentals developed in Media Marketing and Promotion with specific focus on major professional sports marketing as well as for amateur sports and the Olympics. This course will utilize theories and give them practical application.

RTA 232 Sport, Media and Society
Building upon the concepts delivered in RTA105: Sport Theory and Practice, this course will examine ethical theories and their application to sport, the status of women in sport, corporate citizenship and the connection between sport and the society in which it operates.

RTA 233 Sport Journalism
This course combines the history, practice and technique of sport journalism with extensive practice. The theory covers the style and substance of sport journalism, cross-platform reporting, written and visual story-telling, shaping language for the ear, interview techniques and the legal impacts of sport reporting. Students are introduced to various sport journalism roles in order to build a repertoire of practical experiences.

RTA 310 Media Aesthetics and Culture
This course is designed to broaden understanding of the relationship between culture and media. Students tackle theories and ideas of visual studies, gender, fandom, transmedia, heroism and representation in all different media from TV to webisodes to gaming to comics and music. Students will learn about historical and current examples of boundary-breaking storytelling, and analyze and critique the work of storytellers from the past and present. (Formerly BDC 401).

RTA 311Production: Intermediate Audio
Building on the audio skills acquired in RTA 104, BDC 101 or BDC 191, this course continues to introduce students to various audio production practices. Through a series of guided workshops and assignments in a supervised laboratory, students will produce content for a variety of audio delivery systems. Students will develop their knowledge of audio production tools, and gain an understanding of the teamwork and interpersonal skills necessary to create successful audio and radio productions. (Formerly BDC 301).

RTA 312 Production: Intermediate Digital Media
This course offers intermediate-level skills in digital content production with a focus on motion graphics, animation, and the web. The course includes group-critiques, in-class workshops, production exercises and tutorials, and requires students to have a basic familiarity with computers and digital tools.

RTA 313* Production: Intermediate Multicamera
This course provides students with more advanced understanding and practice in multi-camera/studio production techniques. Through skill-based workshop rotations, studio production exercises and a major project, students develop their knowledge of production tools, operation and care of equipment, and an understanding of the teamwork and interpersonal skills necessary to create successful programming. As well, the skill set and talent necessary to use the visual medium to tell effective and evocative stories is further developed. (Formerly BDC 303).

RTA 314* Production: Intermediate Single-Camera
This course advances the student's knowledge and applications of lighting, framing, composition, location constraints, sound, and the power of editing involved in single camera shooting. Students will review the camera/recorder and non-linear edit suites, the planning techniques derived from scripts, lighting techniques and audio recording. Students will develop story, scripts and production planning paperwork for one short and one longer form production, which they will shoot and edit. (Formerly BDC 304).

RTA 315 Business of Creative Media
An introduction to business practices and issues within the creative industries. Students are introduced to the business, operational and legal practices of the media in Canada. Students explore how these diverse businesses function within the Canadian regulatory environment and internationally. Students learn about business applications, as well as the legal/regulatory framework that media professionals operate in, and will explore ethical issues for media and business in general. (Formerly BDC 402).

RTA 316 Introduction to Narrative
From memory to conversations to scripted stories, narrative is a profound part of the human experience. How and why do we tell stories? This course examines how stories are told through different media and across different technological platforms. We explore how contemporary writers, theorists, artists and media-makers come to terms with narrative in the digital era, as new technologies impact how we communicate and create new narrative forms that transcend traditional media boundaries.

RTA 317 Digital Media for Evolving Audiences
As social practice, technologies and media content change in the 21st century, our understanding of the types of stories we can tell and our relationship with an active, participatory audience has radically shifted. This course introduces students to the ideas of transmedia narratives and cross-media projects, discusses the properties of various content-platforms for interaction, and examines the dynamics of participatory audiences.

RTA 320 Interactive Storytelling
This studio course introduces students to the fundamental concepts and strategies for creating interactive and nonlinear narratives. Students learn classic theories of storytelling and editing, as the foundation to crafting compelling interactive narratives. Through a series of projects, students are introduced to different methodologies for creating interactive narrative experiences, including the creation of storyworlds and narrative maps, and the use of character, perspective and time to build choice and viewer agency into the narrative experience.

RTA 321 Intro to Tangible Media
Using the human body and its senses (vision, acoustic, touch, taste, smell, proprioception - physical sense of self movement) as an organizing model, this course introduces students to Physical Computing practices. Students will learn about digital and analog sensor systems, be introduced to micro-controllers, computer sensor systems and ubiquitous computing. Basic programming skills are an important part of this course. (Formerly MPM 308).

RTA 322 Technology, Identity and Creativity
This course examines how media technologies relate to racialized, gendered and sexualized bodies. Students consider scholarly and popular works ranging from the cinematic representation of Frankenstein to current studies of cyborgian bodies in order to produce creative work that responds to modern and postmodern ideas about the body.

RTA 323 Digital Narratology
How has digital culture changed the nature of narrative? How have digital narratives changed our perception of the world? Through critical readings, discussion and writing, this course analyzes digital narrative formats including hypertext, micro-texts, wiki-stories, and interactive narratives. As well, students investigate the work of the cultural theorists and artists who are exploring the meaning of digital media in relation to various narrative practices.

RTA 330 Advanced Live Production
This course will concentrate on the aesthetic and production values of live production. Students learn advanced cutting edge technologies and the logistics involved in live production. This class will combine lectures with the production of a professional quality remote simulated live event, utilizing remote production equipment.

RTA 331 Transmedia Sports Marketing
This course introduces students to the fundamental concepts, principles and strategies utilized in the marketing of sport on multiple platforms. Covering both theoretical and practical aspects of sport marketing, the course will explore new and innovative means by which sports are marketed on television, radio and the Internet.

RTA 332 Legal and Business Aspects of Sport
This course will concentrate on the intersection of sports, law and business. Topic areas will include collective bargaining, amateur and professional sports organizations, team and league discipline, drug testing, sports and criminal law, collusion and tampering amongst sports teams.

RTA 430 Capstone Lecture Series
This course introduces students to the fundamental concepts, principles and strategies utilized in the marketing of sport on multiple platforms. Covering both theoretical and practical aspects of sport marketing, the course will explore new and innovative means by which sports are marketed on television, radio and the Internet.

RTA 431 Sport Media Practicum
Students self-select into groups to produce professional quality audio, television or multimedia sport media projects. Students engage the support of industry mentors as well as RTA faculty and pitch production ideas to a Sport Practicum Management Committee. Sport Practicum ideas must meet professional industry standards. Students must present sixty hours of documented internship or employment in the media industry or a contribution to RTA Productions or the equivalent contribution to the community accumulated during the student’s second, third or fourth year fall terms.

RTA 432 Internship/Study Abroad
With faculty support, students will be given the opportunity to find themselves an 80-hour part-time sport media internship position. Students will develop personal contracts with both industry mentors and their faculty advisors to carry out significant research or production work off-campus. In the alternative, a selection of students may apply and be chosen to study abroad. Students will study the sport media and management operations of professional and/or amateur sport broadcasters and organizations hosted by a foreign university. Students will be expected to pay for travel and accommodations.

RTA 433 Issues in Sports
Building upon the concepts delivered in RTA 105 Sport Theory and Practice, this course will examine ethical theories and their application to sport, the status of women in sport, corporate citizenship and the connection between sport and the society in which it operates.

RTA 501 Project Development
Through workshops, lectures, screenings and seminars, students delve into the creative and practical processes needed to take an idea from inception to script or prototype. This course prepares students to produce their major culminating fourth-year Major Thesis project. Working in small self-selected groups and/or individually, students develop proposals for theses, scripts or production for mid-term critique and final presentation. At term’s end faculty may approve certain proposals to go forward as final projects.

RTA 520 Public Practice
Public practice introduces students to the rigor and demands of the public presentation of creative works, as well as the level of refinement expected of thesis projects. In this hands-on studio course, students will be required to complete an exhibition quality project for the purpose of public presentation. Issues regarding various presentation contexts, gallery timelines, shipping requirements, contracts and artist obligations will be discussed and incorporated into the flow of the term.

RTA 521 #Activism: Media for Social Change
This course will focus on the intersection of media technologies with activist movements, as well as specific forms of participatory culture that have transpired since the advent of social media. Moving from the 20th to the 21st century, we will examine such moments as: the “fax revolution” in the Philippines, uses of community cable TV by artists/ activists in Canada, the role of Facebook and streaming video in international protest movements, Wikileaks, hactivism, and the reconfiguring of social media like Twitter, blogging, YouTube etc. for activist use.

RTA 710* Thesis Project I – Production/Post
This is the culminating project of the student’s undergraduate academic career. Building on their development work in Project Development and working closely with an assigned faculty member in small groups averaging five, students produce a professional-level media project. Alternatively, Students may choose to work independently with an advisor on a full-length script or a special project. (Formerly BDC 701). (Note: Students may with express Departmental approval before the fall fourth year term take four electives in place of RTA 810).

RTA 711 Master Class
In this course, students analyze and discuss the current and future overarching issues within the creative and cultural industries, placing them in context within the Canadian milieu. Senior representatives of various media and faculty members will present and discuss topics from their respective fields of expertise. Students will gain insights into opportunities and challenges in the workplace, trends and the impact of emerging technologies on all sectors with particular focus on content creation.

RTA 712 Thesis Paper
As an alternative to Thesis Project I and II students write a major research paper to refine their scholarship and writing, under close faculty guidance. Included is an advanced library class, an overview of creative approaches to writing a scholarly paper, individual feedback sessions, work-shopping/peer review and discussion of ways of disseminating academic writing. Students create means of making their work available to the RTA community and beyond at the conclusion of the course.

RTA 810* Thesis Project II – Exhibition/Reflection
As the final stage of the student’s undergraduate academic career, students publically exhibit and disseminate their Thesis Project to the RTA community and beyond. The appropriate means and channels of distribution are determined by the nature of the specific projects. Students will use this process to further analyze, reflect upon and hone their own creative work.

RTA 811* Internship
With faculty support, students find themselves a 240 hour intensive internship in the media, media production and related industries. Internships are subject to faculty approval. Students develop personal contracts with industry mentors to carry out significant research or gain industry work experience off campus. The internship is intended to encourage students to explore their particular career interests. Internships may be completed on a part-time basis throughout 4th year with faculty consent.

RTA 812* RTA Productions
As an alternative to RTA 811 Internship, students contribute 240 hour of substantive and significant creative work within the RTA community including, for example, RTA Productions, Spiritlive, RUTV, the Tara awards, approved PSAs and the DMZ. RTA Service is meant both as a means for students to contribute back to the RTA community and to explore their particular career interests. Interested students must demonstrate sixty hours of documented internship or employment in the media industry or contribution to RTA Productions or the equivalent contribution to the community accumulated over the student’s second and third years and fall term of their fourth year.

RTA 813* Directed Readings
Under the guidance of a faculty member, in this course the senior student completes an individualized study and/or directed reading on a research project of mutual interest. The area of research should not duplicate material covered in other RTA courses and should contain an element of originality. Ideally, the course of study should delve into a specific issue associated with a topic rather than simply survey the topic's area.

RTA 821 Issues in Experiential Media Art History
This course is an advanced level seminar taught by departmental faculty members or adjunct and special visiting lecturers. Each semester will be devoted to special topics that become relevant due to the changing practices and needs of the department and students.

RTA 901 Advertising
Students follow a commercial production and related campaign from inception to completion and its use on traditional and social media. Aspects of advertising to be reviewed include: competitive bidding by agencies; budgeting for commercial production; relationships with production houses; government regulations and broadcaster advertisement codes; and the role of various personnel involved in the bidding, pre-production, production and post-production stages of a commercial. The sociocultural implications, effectiveness and persuasiveness of commercials are also explored. (Formerly BDC 901).

RTA 902 Social Media
Students will learn how to leverage established and emerging social media platforms for specific purposes such as marketing, storytelling, research, branding, collaboration, etc. Through case studies and hands-on practice, students will gain an understanding of social media strategy, metrics, and best practices. The effects of social media on storytelling, media production, audiences and culture will be explored.

RTA 903 News and Current Affairs Theory
News as entertainment information, satire, social instructor: audiences interact with the news in many ways. We look critically at ideas like discourse, news value and news filters, and then learn scholarly tools for analyzing news and its audiences. From radio to tabloid journals to E-zines to Twitter, we open up the idea of news in the 21st century, and think about its history, meanings, and future. War news and digital media are a particular focus. (Formerly BDC 903).

RTA 904 Advanced Media Management
In this course, students will learn about organizational behavior in the media industry. Topics will include theories of employee motivation, individual behaviour, interpersonal and organizational communication, perception and personality in organizations, work attitudes and values, team dynamics and effectiveness, organizational power and politics, conflict and negotiation, leadership, and stress management. (Formerly BDC 904).

RTA 905 History and Culture of Popular Music
This course will examine the history and development of popular music in Canada, the US, and the UK, from the 1950's through to the present. Students will study popular music, along with the performers, labels, and key individuals behind the scenes who made it all happen. The goal of the course is to examine popular music through the decades in musical, cultural, political, and industrial contexts. (Formerly BDC 935)

RTA 906 Marketing for Media Professionals
In this course, students learn the basics of marketing including concepts relating to branding, communications plans, pricing and sales. These concepts will be understood in the context of media product. Students learn basic skills, and become familiar with the overall media marketing work thus better appreciating the importance of assuming a marketing mind set while pursuing any aspect of their media work. (Formerly BDC 906).

RTA 907 Sound Media
From Edison's first recordings and Fessenden's first broadcast of the human voice to contemporary practices of mashup and podcasts, sound media are ubiquitous in our culture. This course explores historic and contemporary practice in sound media, including screen sound, radio, sound art, soundscape, music, sonic branding, sonic interactive design and noise.

RTA 908 Business of Producing I
From the vantage point of the independent producer, students study the business and legal aspects of independent productions. Students examine how producers work with broadcasters, content creators, internet channels, interactive and transmedia platforms, funding agencies and financiers. Students also explore the business aspects of pitching (selling), developing, financing, producing, post-production and commercial exploitation/distribution of creative media properties. (Formerly BDC 908).

RTA 909 Business of Producing II
This course builds on executive producing skills developed in RTA 908/MP 8908. Students form teams to develop the creative, financing, production, and business materials necessary for a complete series proposal for an independent production. These proposals will be competitively pitched to a panel of broadcasters and producers. This course is hands-on with creative, budgetary and business workshops and is intended for those students interested in creating and executive producing television and related transmedia projects. (Formerly BDC 909).

RTA 910 Production Management
This course focuses on the role of the production manager in film and television. Students will become acquainted with all aspects of a production: development; pre-production; production; post-production. Topics will include legal aspects, financing, insurance, script breakdown and scheduling, budgeting, accounting and cost reports, location management, talent and crew unions, contracts, reporting mechanisms and relevant forms and paperwork as well as a review of key production personnel job descriptions and tips on getting hired. (Formerly BDC 910).

RTA 911 Directing and Performance
A general introduction to acting and directing theory and practice. Through lectures, workshops, scene deconstructions and screenings, culminating in a final production experience students learn effective strategies to bring the scripted page to the screen. Students also learn how to create and improvise characters within a limited time scale, study principles of voice, movement and basics of script break-down, blocking for actors and cameras and how lighting, audio and music contribute to mise-en-scene.

RTA 912 The Audience
What does the audience want? This course introduces a wide range of research techniques and methodologies used in broadcasting and social media to measure audience and evaluate programming success across a range of platforms. This course also examines audience programming strategies of television networks. Students learn about research methods and decision-making processes used in program development, selection, promotion and scheduling.

RTA 913 Media Entrepreneurship
In an ever changing industry media graduates must look beyond salaried employment in the corporate or public sector. This course assists media students to develop entrepreneurial options for themselves in the media industry, focusing on growth-oriented business venturing. In the first half of the course, students are introduced to entrepreneurship and business venturing. In the second half of the course, each student develops a business plan for a media startup. (Formerly BDC 913).

RTA 914 Business Case Studies in Communications
Students conduct case studies exploring particular aspects of the media industry. They focus on how components of the production industry and broadcasting system function. Areas of study will include government regulation, market fragmentation, corporate consolidation, new technologies, cultural sovereignty, and international media production and distribution. Students present their findings in class and lead discussion on their particular subject. They also explain what makes their individual research important in the broader context. (Formerly BDC 922).

RTA 915 Legal Issues in Media
This course will provide students with a deeper understanding of the concepts and legal process inherent in the business of broadcasting and communications. Topics to be covered include copyright, contracts, clearance of program rights, legal issues relating to the Internet and multimedia. Issues in entertainment law and sports law will also be reviewed, as will government regulation of the broadcasting and multimedia industries. (Formerly BDC 915).

RTA 916 Advanced Media Marketing
Building on the concepts introduced in RTA 906 this course explores effective marketing and promotion techniques for various specific media products. Specific areas of discussion include brand development strategies and detailed marketing plans which encompasses a strong communications mix across all platforms.

RTA 917 Public Relations
Broadcasters work in a regulated environment and ultimately rely on public support. Much broadcast content is generated by public relations sources. This course provides a broad understanding of Public Relations concepts and principles and their application in today's complex media world. Students explore the significance of current events and apply practical learning through the development of a launch campaign for a television program. Practitioners from the broadcast industry add expert input. (Formerly BDC 917).

RTA 918 Ethics in Media
This course explores ethical and legal case studies in a business context, analyzing problems that arise in typical broadcasting and new media environments. The student's responsibility to society and the ethical choices they will be required to make are compared to the legal framework (both regulatory and statutory) within which they will be working. (Formerly BDC 918).

RTA 919 The Art of Negotiation
Negotiation is a learned skill. This course provides students with a comprehensive introduction to negotiation, enhancing students' abilities in preparing for, opening, bargaining and closing any type of negotiation more effectively. Students will learn theories of negotiation, and will apply those concepts during negotiation exercises, using both general and specific entertainment industry, artist management, and agency negotiation exercises.

RTA 920 Visual Storytelling: Video Production
This course will introduce the production techniques of single-camera video as used in television and other screen-based media. Students will build skills in designing video pieces from beginning to end: pre-production, on location shooting, and post-production editing and finishing. (Formerly BDC 929).

RTA 921 Advanced Audio Theory
This course is an exploration of Audio Theory for advanced applications. The course will cover modern audio practice as it applies to sound recording studios, live sound and sound reinforcement systems, acoustics and room and studio design, electronic and digital circuits and systems, computer applications in audio as well as Digital Signal Processing and compression systems and technology. (Formerly BDC 921).

RTA 922 Transmedia Writing
Students explore how to write to extend a story and the audience experience across a variety of platforms. Students write a transmedia bible, create a story world and characters that live for the audience in media including social media, participatory networks, ARG, traditional television and devices and media currently existing and yet undiscovered. Students also research and analyze the meaning and impact of audience-producer relationships.

RTA 923 Intro to Writing for Video Games
In this course, students develop the skills and understanding needed to write sophisticated and emotionally involving video games. Students consider the strengths and limitations of the video game form, how to develop a resonant concept and deep characters, how to integrate gameplay into a story, and how to write for more non-linear and abstract games.

RTA 925 Making Objects
This course will introduce students to basic material practices and physical object production. Students will gain the necessary skills to model, design and build physical entities. Students will be introduced to a variety of fabricating techniques as well as a range of materials. Projects will challenge students to work at a variety of scales and within several contexts. Individual and group projects will require development of personal and team based production skills.

RTA 926 Studies in Genre
With a focus on great scripts from a variety of media, each year the course examines how writing in a specific genre enables artists to define and shape their identities within social and cultural contexts. Students will study the genre in depth as it manifests in television, radio and digital media. Areas of study will include the genre’s evolution and conventions, sub-genres, and parody. (Formerly BDC 926).

RTA 927 Business of Music I
This course explores the history of the music business, music industry organization and the roles of record companies, publishers, songwriters, unions and managers. Topics include A and R, marketing, promotion, sales, business affairs, finance and the use of music in film, TV, and advertising. Formerly BDC 927).

RTA 928 Gaming Theory and Practice
Computer games are increasingly recognized as important objects of cultural value. This class looks at how computer and console games are made, why they are made, and how users interpret and respond to them. This course includes discussions of formal game theory, the cultural theory and history surrounding computer games and studies issues regarding 3D modeling, animation, design and development of interactive narratives and storytelling, mobile gaming, and gaming in various online systems. (Formerly BDC 928).

RTA 929 Multi-platform Narrative
In this studio course, as students develop interactive, nonlinear and transmedia narratives, they are tasked with finding the best platform(s) for each story, as they explore the interplay of medium and narrative. Students will be given a series of projects and narrative design challenges, wherein they must choose the media with which to best convey the narrative goals. Topics explored include the narrative impact of private versus public content, scale and screens, and the use of social networks, ubiquitous media, and "real" space to tell compelling stories.

RTA 930 Social Practices in Hybrid Media Spaces
This course is designed to help students develop awareness of how virtual environments have changed our notions of social life by altering our relationship to time and space. Through research projects that integrate readings, in class discussion and projects in virtual worlds, students will develop experiential design skills to evaluate, repurpose, and otherwise develop virtual environments for social innovation.

RTA 931 Inside the Frame
What compromises the "look" of a film, television series or other screen-based work? What theoretical approaches and practical decisions determine how a story is told visually to provide the greatest creative value for the filmmaker and emotional impact on the audience? Students apply theoretical frameworks to classic film and television works to understand how elements of direction, visual composition, mise en scene, cinematography, editing, production design and technological advances can shape our stories. (Formerly BDC 931).

RTA 932 Hacking, DIY and Open Source Cultures
This survey course examines the historical role of peer-to-peer practices in western society in order to ascertain the role of informal information economies as sites of cultural and societal change. The course will also examine how networked peer-to-peer practices of the early 21st century have introduced on a mass scale alternate social and cultural changes that mark the beginning of a societal shift similar in scope to the changes that occurred during the Renaissance. Through research projects, students will analyze how these practices have altered contemporary social, cultural and economic practices and norms.

RTA 933 Hacking, DIY and Open Source Studio
In this studio course, students will develop projects that exist at the intersection of social media, and/or virtual worlds, and their field of study. The goal is to help students develop expertise in cross-disciplinary methodologies and explore the role of social media in their profession. In this course, students will be asked to develop prototypes of projects that integrate social media design methods.

RTA 934 Virtual Identities and Communities
This survey course examines the role of virtual environments in reshaping early 21st century notions of identity, communities and organizations. Through research projects, students analyze how these practices have altered the nature of mainstream society and question the future of western culture.

RTA 935 Institutional/Personal Media Platforms
In this studio course, students will develop projects that develop virtual identities, communities and organizations and learn how to use personal and peer culture in a professional and/or institutional setting. The goal is to help students develop expertise in cross-disciplinary methodologies and explore the role of social media in their profession. In this course, students will be asked to develop prototypes of projects that integrate social media design methods.

RTA 936 The Business of Art
Successfully creating art works as an independent artist requires a diverse collection of skills that extend well beyond the conceptualization and making of projects. The Business of Art will provide students a framework for taking that great idea, getting it funded, and making it a reality. This course will introduce students to the fundamentals of successful proposal writing, project management and budgeting. Grounded in cases studies and real world examples the procedures and strategies for applying to art councils, self-funding and private investing will be considered.

RTA 937 Business of Music II
Expanding upon the subject matter of Business of Music I, this course continues the examination of the inner workings of the music recording, publishing and management industries. Students concentrate on business models and practices, in-depth analysis of music industry contracts with a focus on emerging marketing and promotion tools and techniques. Students work concurrently with real artists, developing various marketing artifacts, culminating in a term-end public presentation of their selected artist. (Formerly BDC 937).

RTA 938 Digital Popular Cultures
A critical look at the defining digital technologies and transmedia content of popular culture: social media; mobile media; online fandom; gaming; pirating/hacking; open source software; new audience practices for online/streaming television. Using a cultural studies approach, students will read a wide range of texts examining the everyday practices and interactive possibilities of digital popular culture, with attention to presencing, archiving, searching, and new forms of community via digital technologies.

RTA 939 Aboriginal Media
This course explores Aboriginal media art in the context of the major political and social discourses currently informing contemporary First Nations art. Through screenings, readings and guest artists we will examine critically engaged community-based art practices in the context of Aboriginal aesthetics. Two-spirit, gender, class and race issues will be seen through the lens of Aboriginal artists. The course will compare the function of art from an Aboriginal worldview with that of a Western one.

RTA 940 Canadian Televisual Studies
This theory-based course comprises a broad-ranging and multi-genre look at Canadian media, with a particular focus on television content from the 1960s to the 21st century, including ways that audiences interact with national broadcasting. We will also examine digital technologies, global discourses of runaway production, and cross-border export /franchise, with a critical look at national myths and practices in the digital era. (Formerly BDC 924).

RTA 941 Dramatic Writing
This course demystifies the process of writing for the screen and encourages students to find their unique dramatic voice by writing an original script. Students analyze principles of dramatic storytelling and current dramas at the script level. Using story editing exercises, students learn how to structure a story, build dramatic tension and craft moving characters. By the end of the course, students develop an appreciation of the nature and purpose of drama. (Formerly BDC 941).

RTA 942 Advertising Copywriting
This course hones the student’s abilities in advertising copywriting and commercial writing. Students study and practice copywriting style and mechanics for traditional media such as radio and television and emerging and immersive methods of reaching consumers via Social Media and the Internet. Students learn effective strategies how to evaluate consumer needs and deliver a compelling message to motivate an audience. (Formerly BDC 942).

RTA 943 Comedy Writing
This course covers the fundamentals of comedy writing with special focus on the techniques of writing comedy for television and the web with an emphasis on sketches and sitcoms. Students take part in story editing exercises, designed to simulate industry practices. This course's key goal is to develop students' creative and comic voice in their writing. (Formerly BDC 943).

RTA 944 Writing for Animation
This course is designed to cover the fundamentals of writing for animated series designed for television and other platforms. Students will learn the language and process of writing for animation and consider the rich creative history of animation. Students will be required to create a fully realized animated script by the end of the semester. (Formerly BDC 944).

RTA 945 Writing for Factual and Reality Programs
In this course students learn the story chasing/development, writing techniques and production practices related to lifestyle, current affairs, science, business, entertainment and “reality” programming. Students learn how to shape their research, found material, interviews, narration, b-roll and stills into coherent and emotionally engaging stories while working within tight constraints of time, genre and format. Students also analyze the ethical dilemmas and social trends that fact-based and reality programming represent. (Formerly BDC 945).

RTA 946 Issues in New Media Theory/History
This course, taught by a different professor each year, will take on different historical and critical approaches to technology and creative practice, looking at mechanical, electronic and digital/interactive platforms. Potential topics to be explored: amateur versus professional practices, creative media practice and domestic space, personal history and media memory, software studies, affect theory and technology, social media and social theory.

RTA 947 Live Event Media
Live events are true "multi-media" challenges, incorporating a mix of live performance, live-to-air and streaming multi-camera video, graphic design and animation, live sound mixing and musical performance, set design, single-camera productions and more. A professional live event builds on a foundation of solid writing, content development, and technical direction. In this course, students ultimately plan and execute a cross-media live event, applying and honing their skills in all of these areas.

RTA 948 Interactive Spaces
Interactive Spaces builds upon and extends the fundamentals introduced in Intro to Computational Art. In this course, scripting and programming skills will be developed and integrated with interaction design skills. Students will produce a variety of experiences based on several modes of interactivity. Emphasis is placed on the production of interactive systems that engage participants through unique and dynamic experiences. (Formerly MPM 307).

RTA 949 Directed Study
The Directed Study course makes it possible for a student to work on an independent research project under the supervision of a faculty member. The project should either explore a topic which is not usually covered in the curriculum or propose a more in-depth study of topic covered in an existing course. It is the student's responsibility to identify the topic, develop an appropriate research plan and obtain approval for undertaking a Directed Study.

RTA 950 Selected Topics in Media
Topics explored in this course will be determined by available faculty expertise, student interest, and curricular need. Registration may be limited to students in a specific year of the program and may require the Instructor's permission or a prerequisite at the Department's discretion. Enrolment numbers may also be limited. The Department will also consider student proposals for areas of study brought to the Faculty through the Departmental Council. May not be offered every year. (Formerly BDC 950).

RTA 951 Presentation I
In this course, students develop their on-air presentation skills. They will present stories, news and commentaries both on-camera and behind the microphone, and through a series of exercises develop interviewing, stand up and co-hosting skills. Students will also do research into the performance life of a professional broadcaster. Exercises are supplemented with guest lectures from broadcast professionals. (Formerly BDC 951).

RTA 952 Presentation II
Students will use the skills they developed in RTA 951 to write and produce a series of their own presentation segments for a 'demo reel' or 'audition tape'. A number of guest speakers, who are program producers, will mentor the students through the process. The students will learn how to market their produced tapes to producers. (Formerly BDC 952).

RTA 953 Mobility and Mixed Reality
This course engages with mobile technologies and their impact on new media art practice through a discussion of contemporary artworks as well as hands-on exercises. This course explores how mobile technologies and mixed reality blur the boundaries between physical and virtual spaces, redefining the relationship we have to interfaces, places and the city. Emphasis will be placed on the production of new participatory experiences focused on specific locations, boundaries and topologies. (Formerly MPM 407).

RTA 954 Empathy Machines
Empathy Machines continues upon and extends the fundamentals introduced in Intro to Tangible Media. This course emphasizes the role of the interface as a structure for communication. This course examines how traditional forms of input and output are displaced through the design of physical artistic interfaces. Students will develop, produce and reflect upon works that incorporate elements of traditional, hybridized and physical systems by combining electronics and embedded programming techniques with media machines. (Formerly MPM 408).

RTA 955 Sports Broadcasting
This course examines the programming philosophy and production of sports programs. The course explores different types of programming including feature production, sports journalism, live-event coverage and interactive Web-based production. It will discuss the behind the scenes responsibilities of executives, editorial staff and technical crews, as well as on air-performance and visual presentation in both traditional and interactive environments. Using this knowledge, students will produce a sports feature and a live production. (Formerly BDC 955).

RTA 956 Children's Programming
Students examine children's developmental stages, interests and needs, and study contemporary children's television techniques and the influence media has on kids’ lives. The course explores societal and regulatory forces that influence children's programming with guest speakers addressing current issues in the industry. Students conduct original research into media intended for children and adolescents and, with the instructor’s permission, may produce a short creative work to demonstrate their research. (Formerly BDC 956).

RTA 957 Documentary Production
This course provides an opportunity for students to produce a documentary short subject, building on key theoretical concepts and storytelling skills developed in Introduction to Documentary. Students work in teams to produce an original 20-minute documentary, previously developed in Introduction to Documentary. Students will develop basic competencies in documentary pre-production, production and post-production practices and create a trans-media strategy to develop the documentary across other media platforms. (Formerly BDC 957).

RTA 958 Communications within Hybrid Environments
This advanced studio will encourage students to refine their artistic voice through the application of skills in the context of emerging hybrid environments. Ubiquitous computing, networking and the mobile individual serve as points of departure for collaborative explorations dealing with the communication potentials of emerging media spaces.

RTA 959 Visualization and Generative Processes
This advanced studio course will explore the role of generative algorithms and database visualization approaches in new media art works. Processes of randomization, feedback, behavior, mapping and emergence will be related to data and structure through the construction of interactive experiences. Students will deepen their understanding of presentation skills and professional practice through the development of individual works.

RTA 960 Selected Topics in International Media
This course focuses on cross-cultural and/or international topics related to media. Topics offered in any semester will be determined by faculty expertise available. Registration may be limited to students in a specific year of the program and may require the Instructor's permission or a prerequisite at the Department's discretion. Enrolment numbers may also be limited. May not be offered every year. (Formerly BDC 960)

RTA 961 2-D and Object Animation
This course is an introduction to the world of 2-D animation and stop-frame object animation. It will include discussion of the history and aesthetic aspects of animation and also allow students to produce their own pieces. Equipment and software for simple animated projects will be introduced, and film, video, new media and interactive forms of delivery will be discussed. (Formerly BDC 961).

RTA 962 Interaction Design
In this course, students will learn and define modes of interactivity that are available to create experiences and the qualities required to design interesting interactions. The course will examine the history and development of the dialogue surrounding the modern idea of interaction from its influences in theatre, performance, and kinetic sculpture. Students will also explore creative applications of communication paradigms, including the design implications of alternative modalities and practices with the changing cultures of presentation-reception.

RTA 963 Digital Graphic and Web Design
This course explores graphic and web design from an aesthetic and functional point of view. Students will learn about the software and technology needed to acquire, manipulate and render effective visual images, and will experience the planning, production, and launch of a web site, using the latest web design and management software. Designing for human usability will be discussed as well as limitations of technology in order to maximize the impact of the creative material. (Formerly BDC 963).

RTA 964 Emerging Technology for Media Makers
This course covers developing practices, cultures and technologies at the intersection of digital and real-world production. Students will discuss and create within Virtual Worlds, Augmented Reality, virtual characters/sets and location-aware content, analyzing developing trends and creating innovative cross-media content. (Formerly BDC 964).

RTA 965 Advanced New Media Topics
This course will allow students to explore leading-edge research, developments and projects in new media. New media practitioners and researchers will be encouraged to submit proposals for this workshop. Collaborative and community-based projects will also be actively sought and encouraged. The particular structure of the workshop will be responsive to the nature of the ongoing projects but the students will be active participants in the design, development and prediction of the accepted projects.

RTA 966 Cooperative Internship
This course gives students the opportunity to work in professional production situations and settings which provide them with professional experience with the medium/media of choice. Internship contacts are the responsibility of the student. All internships are subject to departmental approval in advance. (For senior BFA students only)

RTA 967 Interactivity and Net-working
This course examines the notion of interactivity and networking in establishing an experiential culture in early 21st century western society. Using selected historical and contemporary case studies, students will explore the interrelated cultural phenomena of interactivity and networking and will study how experiential culture influences their profession.

RTA 968 Malleable Media
Through hands-on, participatory and practice based strategies this course will explore how DIY culture and rapidly changing technology platforms expand, alter and enhance personal practice. By focusing on several strands of this new web, currently being woven, we will examine how new and emerging technologies can be incorporated into daily practice. We will develop strategies for adopting new methods and materials and reflect upon how new practices inspire or challenge us.

RTA 969 Television Technical Producing
An advanced course in television technical producing, this course is a continuation of technical production knowledge obtained in previous context and craft courses in television (both multicamera and EFP). Students will explore large live-event coverage (sports, elections, music specials, awards shows), and tours will be arranged to technical production facilities in the Toronto area. The course culminates with a live teleproduction at the end of the semester. (Formerly BDC 972).

RTA 970 Lighting, Grip and Effects Specialty
Lighting and special effects technicians work behind the scenes to add realism or dramatic effect to a television production. This course will engage the student in theoretical and practical aspects of this element of production. Emphasis will be on the aesthetics, professionalism, discipline, technical ability, equipment and safety considerations necessary to achieve the desired results. (Formerly BDC 973).

RTA 971 Audio Post Production and Sound Design
This course will introduce students to the creative and technical aspects of creating a soundtrack for the moving image. Through a combination of lecture, screenings, discussion, and practical workshop modes, students will learn about the audio post production process, including dialog recording and replacement (ADR), Foley and sound effects editing, music and score, and mixing techniques. (Formerly BDC 974).

RTA 972 Sound Synthesis
This course will cover practices and principles of analog and digital sound synthesis and their historic origins; related audio equipment and applications; theories of sound samplers; algorithmic composition; synthesizers and sequencers; computer music; digital signal processing; computer synchronization; and MIDI applications in sound synthesis and recording production. Advanced sound synthesis techniques are studied and supplemented with sound synthesis studio laboratory work. (Formerly BDC 975)

RTA 973 Independent Production
In this course senior students produce professional level audio, video or new media projects following a carefully designed planning process. This course is for that individual student who wishes to stretch their technical, organizational and, most importantly, creative skills on a project that does not fit within the constraints of the fourth year Master Thesis. (Formerly BDC 976).

RTA 974 Radio Production
The course will explore commercial and public radio programming and production. Radio advertising and formats will be explored. Students will have the opportunity to practice their skills in these areas by planning and producing content that reflects various formats and target demographics. (Formerly BDC 979).

RTA 975 Video Compositing and Special Effects
A large number of images that appear on our TV screens are treated with special effects prior to completion. Students will work with a range of basic image treatment software and will acquire skills on more sophisticated systems both on and off campus. They will learn the why and when for such effects treatments as special effects decisions can involve ethical elements. (Formerly BDC 982)

RTA 976 Radio Broadcast Journalism
This course combines an introductory theory package with extensive practice. The theory covers story structure, shaping the language for the ear, the value and purpose of original sound and interview segments, journalistic conventions, reporting procedures and the law as it applies to daily news functions. The majority of the term is designed to allow students to undertake newsroom tasks and roles on a rotating basis. Each lab session culminates in a radio newscast. (Formerly BDC 983).

RTA 977 Factual and Entertainment Features
There is a broad spectrum of stories on television and radio that are fact-based but also meant to be artistic and entertaining. This course allows students to focus on these features, learning to create unique personal stories by developing the characters in their stories through specific styles of writing and interviewing. Students will choose an entertainment/feature program and do an extensive deconstruction of it. Students will work in teams to produce a ten minute feature. (Formerly BDC 985).

RTA 978 Editing Specialty
This is an in-depth course designed to provide a thorough understanding of video editing techniques and processes. Through exercises, the process is followed from the initial planning stages to the final edit session. Topics covered include aesthetics and emotion, the importance of audio in video productions, story structure and the editing different genres. Students apply this knowledge to execute a series of projects in a professional editing environment. (Formerly BDC 988).

RTA 979 Advanced Television Editing
Students learn about advanced editing and finishing. Creative use of special effects, filters, colour correction and advanced audio mixing are among the topics covered. As well, organizational skills, post-production protocol, editing for different genres and advanced workflows including budgeting and scheduling needed to handle large amounts of media will be discussed.

RTA 980 TV Broadcast Journalism
Following a structural analysis of a typical television news broadcast, each major element is dissected via lecture and practiced in a small workshop environment. Typical elements include broadcast news writing, researching, reporting, visual storytelling, video editing to deadline, producing assignment and line up editing. Over the term, students are introduced to the wide range of roles and are given many opportunities to build a repertoire of practical experiences in a TV newsroom setting. (Formerly BDC 984).

RTA 981 Advanced Audio Production
This course is an advanced master class for students specializing in Audio. Building on the basic and intermediate training in the first and second years of the program, this course will explore the theory and practice of Advanced Audio Production. The course will include discussion of the history of audio and focus on the aesthetics of quality audio, and applying these principles to senior level production assignments. (Formerly BDC 601).

RTA 982 Advanced Digital Media Production
This course is an advanced masterclass for students specializing in interactive digital media. Building on the basic and intermediate training in the first and second years of the program, this course explores the theory and practice of an Advanced Interactive Media Production. It includes in-depth case-studies, with a focus on the design, aesthetics, production and performance of interactive media productions. Students plan, design, create and launch large-scale digital-media productions as part of this course. (Formerly BDC 602).

RTA 983 Multi-Camera Production –Advanced
This course is an advanced master class for students specializing in television studio production and multi-camera productions in the field. Building on knowledge and skills acquired in previous courses, students learn advanced TV studio theory and best current practices and apply these principles to production assignments. (Formerly BDC 603).

RTA 984 Single-Camera Production – Advanced
This course concentrates primarily on the aesthetic and production values of the video image, complemented by the progressive investigation of high definition (HD) and lighting technologies. This class investigates how light, colour and the perception of colour, motion, and the compositional elements of dimensionality, visualization and perspective in high definition production can be used at a sophisticated level to tell a story. (Formerly BDC 604).

RTA 985 Sound for Video Producers
A great video production requires great sound. In this course, designed for students primarily interested in video production, students learn various techniques for capturing sound on set and in the field, as well as post-production editing and mixing techniques for a variety of screen-based media. Creative, technical, and theoretical aspects of sound design are also explored.

RTA 986 International Development
Students will learn about international development, and the role that media plays in it, through both classroom work and travel abroad to engage in a community development project. Depending on the proposed project, students may be expected to fund raise, create media productions, plan events, and/or teach others how to use and produce media. Enrolment in the course is strictly by permission of the RTA School of Media only. Course may not be offered every year.

RTA 990 Intro to Documentary Theory
This course provides students with an understanding of and appreciation for the documentary genre. Through lectures, breakouts and workshops, students explore documentary history and theory, deconstruct selected master works, study specific subgenres, and learn about funding and marketing strategies for both mainstream and alternative documentary. Students also discuss and debate topics related to documentary practice and ethics and work in teams to conceive and develop documentary stories and pitches.

RTA 991 Sport Writing
The intention of this course is to introduce students to the particulars of sport writing, building upon the theories and practice first introduced in Sport Journalism. A course in sport writing will involve learning the fundamentals of sport writing for television, radio and digital media. Students learn the language of sport writing and are required to write a number of broadcast scripts across all broadcast media.

RTA 992 Social and Interactive Media
In this course students will be introduced to transmedia platforms and their application to the sport industry. By way of lectures, case studies and in-class workshops, students will learn new modes of story-telling by maintaining the overall narrative through multiple outlets. Social media, gamification techniques, digital media and other cross-platform destinations will be examined. This course will also introduce students to the creation of sports games on multiple platforms.

RTA 999 RTA in LA
Students are given a window into business, organizational and creative practices of the Los Angeles-based media industry. The focus is on television with significant discussion of transmedia and feature films. The course culminates in an intense two weeks in Los Angeles working in small tutorial groups of lectures/case studies/workshops with current US industry professionals. Spring/Summer course which may not be offered every year. (Note: Students bear additional costs for transportation, food and board.)

RTA 82A/B Thesis Project: Production and Post
This is the culminating project of the student’s undergraduate academic career. Building on their development work in Project Development and working closely with an assigned faculty member in small groups averaging five, students produce a professional-level media project. Alternatively, Students may choose to work independently with an advisor on a full-length script or a special project. (Formerly BDC 701). (Note: Students may with express Departmental approval before the fall fourth year term take four electives in place of RTA 710 and RTA 810).

BSM 100 The New Business: From Idea to Reality
This course is the first in a series of three tracing the evolution of an existing Canadian-based public company from inception to current state. This course focuses on the steps necessary for the idea of a visionary to be transformed into a viable business. Topics include idea generation, understanding the market and customer needs, analyzing the competition, the transition from an informal to a formal organizational structure, financing the business, developing realistic budgets and operating within the political, economic, legal and socio-cultural constraints of the external environment. This course is not available to programs within the Ted Rogers School of Management.

BSM 200 The Growing Business: Breaking Even
This second required course focuses on the firm as it progresses beyond its start-up phase and embraces a more management-focused orientation. Topics covered include governance structures, leadership, human capital recruitment, development and retention, financial stewardship, essential financial tools for decision-making, operations management, industry analysis, strategy development and execution. This course is not available to programs within the Ted Rogers School of Management.

ENT 500 New Venture Start-up
This introductory course is designed primarily for non-business students who are interested in starting a business of their own. Topics included assessing entrepreneurial potential, opportunity identification, market assessment, organizing, promoting, and financing the business, intellectual property, buying an existing business or considering a franchise. Students will be expected to work on developing a business plan. This course is not available to programs within the Ted Rogers School of Management, with the exception of Retail Management.

ENT 505 Small-Business Management
This course takes an interdisciplinary perspective on the challenges of managing in a small-business environment. It is designed for students who plan to join a small or medium-sized enterprise company and want to have an improved understanding of the process by which things get done in small businesses that lack the resources and capabilities of large corporations. Topics include elements of managing high growth rates, family business, outsourcing, internships and leveraging external partnerships, guerilla marketing techniques, cash flow management, bootstrap financing, government programs, and corporate governance in a small business. This course is not available to programs within the Ted Rogers School of Management.

JRN 512 Reporting Sports (or NNS 512 Reporting Sports)
An introduction to working the beat in sports journalism, including developing sources and story ideas and maintaining a reporter's independence from the pressures of commercial sport and home-team cheerleading. The impact of deadlines on sports journalism and sports writing, and an examination of what constitutes excellence in sports reporting will be discussed. Students will be enrolled in sections with a view to the amount of journalism experience they bring to the course, and assignments will be tailored to these differing levels of experience.

SOC 505 Sociology of Sport
This course examines sociological issues related to the nature of play, games, and sport in contemporary society. The course focuses on current structures of sport as both liberating and limiting human social possibilities. Sociological theories are used to analyze such topics as: the relationship between sport and social institutions such as the family, the state, and the economy; the social organization of sport; sport and violence; sport and gender relations; and sport and racism.

Table A - Liberal Studies

To see a list of available Lower Level Liberals, visit the Ryerson Course Calendar under section Table A.

Table B - Liberal Studies

To see a list of available Upper Level Liberals, visit the Ryerson Course Calendar under section Table B.

Open Electives

To see a list of available Open Electives, visit the visit the Ryerson Course Calendar under section Open Electives Table.